Neuroprogression as the Basis for Staging in Bipolar Disorder There is ample research evidence that BD is an evolving condition in which early stages have different clinical features compared to latter phases. Linking neurobiological and clinical findings to neuroprogression and staging. Allostatic Load as the Cause of Progression in Bipolar Disorder BD is a complex and multifactorial disease with genetic and environmental factors contributing to its clinical expression.
Biomarkers of Bipolar Disorder Potential neuroimaging markers Many studies have reported the existence of changes in the brain structures of patients with BD. Oxidative stress Oxidative stress is the result of imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant enzymes, which usually results in cell damage. Inflammatory factors Inflammatory factors also known as cytokines are proteins or glycoproteins secreted by cells of the immune system in response to noxious stimuli. Staging model proposed by Kapczinski et al. Table 1 Evidence based staging models for bipolar disorder BD.
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Bipolar disorder - Wikipedia
Please try your request again later. For six years, he boarded at Homefield School near Bournemouth before winning a sixth-form scholarship to Malvern College, in Worcestershire. He went up to the University of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne to read politics and history but three years later, when Mark should have been sitting the final exams of his degree, he found himself admitted into psychiatric hospital four times and diagnosed with manic-depressive psychosis.
Learning to cope with manic depression, or bipolar disorder, has proven achievable but remains, nonetheless, an endeavour fraught with difficulties and seemingly insurmountable challenges. Since , Mark has worked free-lance in mental health education as an inspirational public speaker and tactical corporate advisor. Mark has published his incredibly boring Master's dissertation with Chipmunka, a political philosophy of mental illness, along with 'In The Dark Backyard', a quirky and much more entertaining look back at some acutely chaotic times.
It is the sequel to 'In The Dark Backyard', and continues a genuinely insightful and witty first hand account of the journey from academe to psychiatric ward to wellness. In his spare time, Mark is a keen amateur cricketer. He is also a published poet, has written and presented a national television series, been a male model, appeared on the silver screen in a series of art-house spectaculars and even been elected Mayor of his home town.
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Learn more Check out. Abstract Objectives While widespread cortical and subcortical brain functional abnormalities have been found in bipolar disorder, the changes that take place between illness phases and recovery are less clearly documented. Citing Literature. Volume 21 , Issue 5 August Pages Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. Previous Figure Next Figure. Email or Customer ID. Forgot password?
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