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Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago. Chinese Esoteric Buddhism refers to traditions of Tantra and Esoteric Buddhism that have flourished among the Chinese people.
Chinese folk religion Chinese popular religion or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods. Chinese folklore encompasses the folklore of China, and includes songs, poetry, dances, puppetry, and tales. The Chinese garden is a landscape garden style which has evolved over three thousand years.
Chinese traditional religion is polytheistic; many deities are worshipped in a pantheistic view where divinity is inherent in the world. The Chinese community played an important role in British Guiana beginning in , supplying independent Guyana its first President, Arthur Chung, from to Chinese honorifics are words and phrases that indicate social respect or deference in the spoken or written language.
In Chinese contemporary popular culture, there are various aspects to the female beauty ideal. The Chinese in Hawaii constitute about 4. The Chinese diaspora in Fiji is a small but influential community in the multiracial society that makes up modern-day Fiji. Chinese culture has had a tremendous impact in many areas of Korean culture, including arts, written language, religion and government administration, with Koreans molding these Chinese models into distinctly Korean forms.
Chinese jade refers to the jade mined or carved in China from the Neolithic onward. The history of Chinese literature extends thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature vernacular fiction novels that arose during the Ming Dynasty to entertain the masses of literate Chinese.
Chinese martial arts, often named under the umbrella terms kung fu and wushu, are the several hundred fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China. Chinese mythology refers to myths found in the historical geographic area of China: these include myths in Chinese and other languages, as transmitted by Han Chinese and other ethnic groups, which have their own languages and myths.
Chinese New Year, usually known as the Spring Festival in modern China, is an important Chinese festival celebrated at the turn of the traditional lunisolar Chinese calendar. Yansheng Coin, in the west they are more commonly known as Chinese numismatic charms or simply Chinese charms alternatively they may be known as Chinese amulets or Chinese talismans , is a collection of special kinds of coins and coin-shaped objects used mainly for ritual uses as well as fortune telling and are involved in almost all forms of Chinese superstitions and Feng shui.
Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world. There are several hundred Chinese citizens and nationals who live in Bangladesh. Chinese people in Israel comprise several separate groups, including the small groups of Jews from China who have immigrated to Israel making aliyah, as well as foreign students studying in Israeli universities, businessmen, merchants, and guest workers, along with Israeli citizens of Chinese ancestry.
The community of Chinese people in Italy has grown rapidly in the past ten years. Chinese people in Japan consist of migrants from the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China, and the previous imperial dynasties to Japan and their descendants. There has been a recognisable community of Chinese people in Korea, also known as Chinese Koreans, since the s.
Chinese people in Spain form the ninth-largest non-European Union foreign community in Spain. Chinese people in the Netherlands form one of the largest overseas Chinese populations in continental Europe.
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Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments. The Chinese Rites controversy was a dispute among Roman Catholic missionaries over the religiosity of Confucianism and Chinese rituals during the 17th and 18th centuries.
Chinese ritual mastery traditions, also referred to as ritual teachings sometimes rendered as "Faism" ,Yu-chi Tsao, Chinese salvationist religions or Chinese folk religious sects are a Chinese religious tradition characterised by a concern for salvation moral fulfillment of the person and the society. Chinese Singaporeans or Singaporean Chinese are people of full or partial Chineseparticularly Han Chineseancestry who hold Singaporean nationality. Chinese spiritual world concepts are cultural practices or methods found in Chinese culture.
Chinese theology, which comes in different interpretations according to the classic texts and the common religion, and specifically Confucian, Taoist and other philosophical formulations, is fundamentally monistic, that is to say it sees the world and the gods of its phenomena as an organic whole, or cosmos, which continuously emerges from a simple principle. Chinese translation theory was born out of contact with vassal states during the Zhou Dynasty. Chinese Venezuelans Chino-venezolanos are people of Chinese ancestry who were born in or have immigrated to Venezuela.
The concept of sin, in the sense of violating a universal moral code, was unknown in Chinese philosophy and folk religion until around the second century CE, when Buddhism arrived from India and religious Daoism originated. Ching Ho Cheng December 26, — May 25, was a contemporary artist who lived and painted in New York City during the s and s. The Chitty are a distinctive group of Tamil people found mainly in Melaka and Singapore, who are also known as the Indian Peranakans. Chris Rush is an American comedian, writer, actor, radio personality and author. Christianity in China appeared in the 7th century, during the Tang dynasty, but did not take root until it was reintroduced in the 16th century by Jesuit missionaries.
Christianity is a minority in Jiangxi, the province of China where Daoism is from. The Western Latin and Eastern Greek divisions of Christianity began to take on distinctive shape in 7th century Christianity. Christianity in the 8th century was much affected by the rise of Islam in the Middle East. The Territory of Christmas Island is an Australian external territory comprising the island of the same name. Christmas Island is located in the Indian Ocean, around south of Java and Sumatra and around north-west of the closest point on the Australian mainland.
It has an area of. Christmas Island had a population of 1, residents as of , the majority of whom live in settlements on the northern tip of the island. The main settlement is Flying Fish Cove. Around two-thirds of the island's population is estimated to have Malaysian Chinese origin though just Several languages are in use, including English, Malay, and various Chinese dialects. Islam and Buddhism are major religions on the island, though a vast majority of the population does not declare a formal religious affiliation and may be involved in ethnic Chinese religion.
The first European to sight the island was Richard Rowe of the Thomas in The island was later named on Christmas Day 25 December by Captain William Mynors, but only settled in the late 19th century. Its geographic isolation and history of minimal human disturbance has led to a high level of endemism among its flora and fauna, which is of interest to scientists and naturalists. The majority 63 percent of the island is included in the Christmas Island National Park, which features several areas of primary monsoonal forest.
Phosphate, deposited originally as guano, has been mined on the island since City of Illusions is a science fiction novel by American writer Ursula K. Le Guin. It was released on June 19, in North America, and on June 22, in the rest of the world. Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.
A cleaver is a large knife that varies in its shape but usually resembles a rectangular-bladed hatchet. Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions. Constructed between and , the sculpture is nicknamed The Bean because of its shape. Made up of stainless steel plates welded together, its highly polished exterior has no visible seams.
It measures, and weighs. Kapoor's design was inspired by liquid mercury and the sculpture's surface reflects and distorts the city's skyline. Visitors are able to walk around and under Cloud Gate's high arch. On the underside is the "omphalos" Greek for "navel" , a concave chamber that warps and multiplies reflections. The sculpture builds upon many of Kapoor's artistic themes, and it is popular with tourists as a photo-taking opportunity for its unique reflective properties.
The sculpture was the result of a design competition. After Kapoor's design was chosen, numerous technological concerns regarding the design's construction and assembly arose, in addition to concerns regarding the sculpture's upkeep and maintenance. Various experts were consulted, some of whom believed the design could not be implemented. Eventually, a feasible method was found, but the sculpture's construction fell behind schedule.
It was unveiled in an incomplete form during the Millennium Park grand opening celebration in , before being concealed again while it was completed. Cloud Gate was formally dedicated on May 15, , and has since gained considerable popularity, both domestically and internationally. Cognitive science of religion is the study of religious thought and behavior from the perspective of the cognitive and evolutionary sciences. Comparative religion is the branch of the study of religions concerned with the systematic comparison of the doctrines and practices of the world's religions. Compassion or Laura Tobin is a fictional character in the Eighth Doctor Adventures novels based upon the British science fiction television series, Doctor Who.
Conflict transformation is a concept designed to reframe the way in which peacebuilding initiatives are discussed and pursued, particularly in contexts of ethnic conflict. Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Confucius — BC was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history. Continuous revelation or continuing revelation is a theological belief or position that God continues to reveal divine principles or commandments to humanity. The counterculture of the s refers to an anti-establishment cultural phenomenon that developed first in the United Kingdom UK and the United States US and then spread throughout much of the Western world between the mids and the mids, with London, New York City, and San Francisco being hotbeds of early countercultural activity.
This covered jar with a carp design is a piece of porcelain from the Jiajing period of the Ming Dynasty in China, currently located in the Indianapolis Museum of Art, which is in Indianapolis, Indiana. Criticism of atheism is criticism of the concepts, validity, or impact of atheism, including associated political and social implications. The ideas and practices of the leaders, preachers, and movements of the Islamic revival movement known as Islamism also known as Political Islam , have been criticized by Muslims often Islamic modernists and liberals and non-Muslims.
Criticism of religion is criticism of the ideas, the truth, or the practice of religion, including its political and social implications. Turtles are frequently depicted in popular culture as easygoing, patient, and wise creatures. The word "menstruation" is etymologically related to "moon". Cultural differences can interact with positive psychology to create great variation, potentially impacting positive psychology interventions. The culture of Asia encompasses the collective and diverse customs and traditions of art, architecture, music, literature, lifestyle, philosophy, politics and religion that have been practiced and maintained by the numerous ethnic groups of the continent of Asia since prehistory.
The culture of Brunei is strongly influenced by Malay cultures and the Islamic religion. A number of ancient civilizations, including the Thracians, Ancient Greeks, Romans, Ostrogoths, Slavs, Varangians and probably Bulgars, have left their mark on the culture, history and heritage of Bulgaria. Costa Rican culture has been heavily influenced by Spanish culture ever since the Spanish colonization of the Americas including the territory which today forms Costa Rica.
The culture of Hong Kong, or Hongkongese culture, can best be described as a foundation that began with Lingnan's Cantonese culture which is distinct to begin with and, to a much lesser extent, non-Cantonese branches of Han Chinese cultures. Laos developed its culture and customs as the inland crossroads of trade and migration in Southeast Asia over millennia. The culture of Malaysia draws on the varied cultures of the different people of Malaysia.
The culture of Taiwan is a blend of Confucianist Han Chinese and Taiwanese aborigines cultures, which are often perceived in both traditional and modern understandings. The culture of the People's Republic of China is a rich and varied blend of traditional Chinese culture with communist and other international modern and post-modern influences.
The Song dynasty — AD was a culturally rich and sophisticated age for China. Cunnilingus is an oral sex act performed by a person on a female's genitalia the clitoris, other parts of the vulva or the vagina. Dai Wangshu March 5, — February 28, , also Tai Van-chou, was a Chinese poet, essayist and translator active from the late s to the end of the s. Dajiao, called the Taiping Qingjiao or Taai ping ching jiu in Hong Kong, is a Taoist ritual and festival which is performed every year.
Daming Lake is the largest lake in the city of Jinan, Shandong, China and one of city's main natural and cultural landmarks. The Daming Palace was the imperial palace complex of the Tang dynasty, located in its capital Chang'an. Dantian, dan t'ian, dan tien or tan t'ien is loosely translated as "elixir field," "sea of qi," or simply "energy center. The English words Daoism and Taoism are alternative romanizations for the same-named Chinese philosophy and religion. Daoist meditation refers to the traditional meditative practices associated with the Chinese philosophy and religion of Daoism, including concentration, mindfulness, contemplation, and visualization.
Dasein is a German word that means "being there" or "presence" German: da "there"; sein "being" , and is often translated into English with the word "existence". De is a key concept in Chinese philosophy, usually translated "inherent character; inner power; integrity" in Taoism, "moral character; virtue; morality" in Confucianism and other contexts, and "quality; virtue" guna or "merit; virtuous deeds" punya in Chinese Buddhism. De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas suscepta ab Societate Jesu Dehua porcelain is a type of white Chinese porcelain, made at Dehua in the Fujian province.
Accurate demographics of atheism are difficult to obtain since conceptions of atheism vary across different cultures and languages from being an active concept to being unimportant or not developed. California is the most populous U. The demographics of China are identified by a large population with a relatively small youth division, which was partially a result of China's one-child policy, which is now modified to a two-child policy in This article is about the demographic features of the population of Costa Rica, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Hong Kong, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. This article is about the demographic features of the population of Macau, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
The demographics of Malaysia are represented by the multiple ethnic groups that exist in the country. The Malaysian Census reported the population of Sabah at 3,,, being the third most populous state in Malaysia and have the highest non-citizens population at , Sarawak's population is very diverse, comprising many races and ethnic groups. The demographics of Singapore include the population statistics of Singapore such as population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other demographic data of the population.
This article is about the demographic features of the population in Taiwan officially known by its constitutional name, the Republic of China , includes population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. Demographics of the world include population density, ethnicity, education level, health measures, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the human population of the planet Earth. Demonology is the study of demons or beliefs about demons, especially the methods used to summon and control them.
Dennis Lewis born is a non-fiction writer and teacher in the areas of breathing, qigong, meditation, and self-enquiry. The death and destruction during the 13th century Mongol conquests have been widely noted in both the scholarly literature and popular memory. Detachment, also expressed as non-attachment, is a state in which a person overcomes his or her attachment to desire for things, people or concepts of the world and thus attains a heightened perspective. Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.
Dialectical monism, also known as dualistic monism, is an ontological position that holds that reality is ultimately a unified whole, distinguishing itself from monism by asserting that this whole necessarily expresses itself in dualistic terms. In religion, divinity or godhead is the state of things that are believed to come from a supernatural power or deity, such as a god, supreme being, creator deity, or spirits, and are therefore regarded as sacred and holy.
Dong Haichuan 13 October or — 25 October is regarded as a skillful martial artist and is widely credited to be the founder of Baguazhang. Dongfang Shuo c. Doseon Guksa a. Douglas Robinson born September 30, is an American academic scholar, translator, and fiction-writer who is best known for his work in translation studies, but has published widely on various aspects of human communication and social interaction American literature, literary theory, linguistic theory, gender theory, writing theory, rhetorical theory.
Downing College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge and currently has around students. A dragon is a large, serpent-like legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures around the world. Drunken boxing is a general name for all styles of Chinese martial arts that imitate the movements of a drunk person.
Du Ruhui — , courtesy name Keming, posthumously known as Duke Cheng of Lai, was a Chinese official who served as a chancellor under Emperor Taizong in the early Tang dynasty. Dualism in cosmology is the moral or spiritual belief that two fundamental concepts exist, which often oppose each other. Dudeism is a religion, philosophy, or lifestyle inspired by "The Dude", the protagonist of the Coen Brothers' film The Big Lebowski. The Dunhuang manuscripts are a cache of important religious and secular documents discovered in the Mogao Caves of Dunhuang, China, in the early 20th century.
Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains is one of the few surviving works by the painter Huang Gongwang — and it is considered to be among his greatest works. Dynamic meditation is a form of meditation in which physical actions are involved. The early life of Chinese revolutionary and politician Mao Zedong covered the first 27 years of his life, from to The Earthly Branches or Twelve Branches are an ordering system used throughout East Asia in various contexts, including its ancient dating system, astrological traditions, and zodiac.
Earthsea is a series of fantasy books written by the American writer Ursula K. Le Guin and the name of their setting, a world of islands surrounded by an uncharted ocean. Earthsea is a fictional realm originally created by Ursula K. Le Guin for her short story "The Word of Unbinding", published in East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period that of the Tang dynasty , in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system.
The "Sinosphere", or "East Asian cultural sphere", refers to a grouping of countries and regions in East Asia that were historically influenced by the Chinese culture. In the study of comparative religion, the East Asian religions form a subset of the Eastern religions. Eastern philosophy or Asian philosophy includes the various philosophies that originated in East and South Asia including Chinese philosophy, Japanese philosophy, Korean philosophy which are dominant in East Asia and Vietnam, and Indian philosophy including Buddhist philosophy which are dominant in South Asia, Tibet and Southeast Asia.
The Eastern religions are the religions originating in East, South and Southeast Asia and thus having dissimilarities with Western religions. The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures or social structures and philosophical systems, depending on the context, most often including at least part of Asia or geographically the countries and cultures east of Europe, specifically in historical pre-modern contexts, and in modern times in the context of Orientalism. Wu — , commonly known as Dong Wu Eastern Wu or Sun Wu, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period — The economic history of China covers thousands of years and the region has undergone alternating cycles of prosperity and decline.
Silinsh; 21 March — 26 May was a Soviet and Latvian scientist in the field of semiconductor physics and philosophy of science, academician of the Latvian Academy of Sciences The Eight Immortals are a group of legendary xian "immortals" in Chinese mythology.
The Eighteen Arhats are depicted in Mahayana Buddhism as the original followers of Gautama Buddha who have followed the Noble Eightfold Path and attained the four stages of enlightenment. Elsa Gidlow 29 December — 8 June was a British-born, Canadian-American poet, freelance journalist, and philosopher. Emperor Shizong of Jin 29 March — 20 January , personal name Wulu, sinicised name Wanyan Yong originally Wanyan Xiu , was the fifth emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries.
Emperor Suzong of Tang 19 October — 16 May ; r. His reign of 43 years was the longest during the Tang dynasty. Emptiness as a human condition is a sense of generalized boredom, social alienation and apathy. Engineered languages often abbreviated to engelangs, or, less commonly, engilangs are constructed languages devised to test or prove some hypotheses about how languages work or might work.
An entheogen is a class of psychoactive substances that induce any type of spiritual experience aimed at development. Eroto-comatose lucidity is a technique of sex magic known best by its formulation by English author and occultist Aleister Crowley in , but which has several variations and is used in a number of ways by different spiritual communities.
Dame Ethel Walker 9 June — 2 March was a Scottish painter of portraits, flower-pieces, sea-pieces and decorative compositions. Ethical codes are adopted by organizations to assist members in understanding the difference between 'right' and 'wrong' and in applying that understanding to their decisions. An ethical decision is one that engenders trust, and thus indicates responsibility, fairness and caring to an individual. Ethics involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior.
Ethnic Chinese in Brunei are people of full or partial Chineseparticularly Han Chineseancestry who are citizens or residents in Brunei. Eugen Herrigel 20 March — 18 April was a German philosopher who taught philosophy at Tohoku Imperial University in Sendai, Japan, from to and introduced Zen to large parts of Europe through his writings. Euro-Sinica is a scholarly series, published by the European academic publisher Peter Lang. Evil, in a colloquial sense, is the opposite of good, the word being an efficient substitute for the more precise but religion-associated word "wickedness.
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Evocation is the act of calling upon or summoning a spirit, demon, god or other supernatural agent, in the Western mystery tradition. An experimental language is a constructed language designed for linguistics research, often on the relationship between language and thought. In Buddhism, faith italic, italic refers to a serene commitment to the practice of the Buddha's teaching and trust in enlightened or highly developed beings, such as Buddhas or bodhisattvas those aiming to become a Buddha. Falun Gong or Falun Dafa Standard Mandarin Chinese:; literally, "Dharma Wheel Practice" or "Law Wheel Practice" is a modern Chinese spiritual practice that combines meditation and qigong exercises with a moral philosophy centered on the tenets of truthfulness, compassion, and forbearance.
Falun Gong, a qigong practice that combines meditation with the moral philosophy articulated by founder Li Hongzhi, first began spreading widely in China in Fang Qiao — , courtesy name Xuanling, better known as Fang Xuanling, posthumously known as Duke Wenzhao of Liang, was a Chinese statesman and writer who served as a chancellor under Emperor Taizong in the early Tang dynasty. Fang Shimin, better known by his pen name Fang Zhouzi, is a Chinese popular scientific writer who is primarily known for his campaign against pseudoscience and fraud in China.
Fangshi was a category of Chinese technical specialists that flourished from the third century BCE to the fifth century CE. Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. Fazang — was the third of the five patriarchs of the Huayan school of Mahayana Bhuddhism. Feilong lit. Femininity also called girlishness, womanliness or womanhood is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with girls and women.
Feminism in China began in the 20th century in tandem with the Chinese Revolution. Feng shui pronounced , also known as Chinese geomancy, is a pseudoscience originating from China, which claims to use energy forces to harmonize individuals with their surrounding environment. Fenggan fl. A field mill, also known as a camp mill, was a premodern vehicle which acted as a mobile mill used for grinding grains, which had the very practical use of feeding a moving army. Figurism was an intellectual movement of Jesuit missionaries at the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century, whose participants viewed the I Ching as a prophetic book containing the mysteries of Christianity,.
In the Philippines, Filipino mestizo, or colloquially tisoy, are people of mixed Filipino and any foreign ancestry. In Chinese philosophy, fire is the prosper of the matter, or the matter's prosperity stage. In Southern Chinese folklore, the Five Elders of Shaolin, also known as the Five Generals are the survivors of one of the destructions of the Shaolin temple by the Qing Dynasty, variously said to have taken place in , in or in In Daoism, The Five Precepts constitute the basic code of ethics undertaken mainly by lay practitioners.
The flag of South Vietnam served as the South Vietnamese national flag during that country's existence between and In positive psychology, flow, also known colloquially as being in the zone, is the mental state of operation in which a person performing an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and enjoyment in the process of the activity. In religious studies and folkloristics, folk religion, popular religion, or vernacular religion comprises various forms and expressions of religion that are distinct from the official doctrines and practices of organized religion.
Forced conversion is adoption of a different religion or irreligion under duress. The foreign relations of the People's Republic of China PRC , commonly known to most states as China, guides the way in which China interacts with foreign nations and expresses its political, economic and cultural strengths, weaknesses and values. The Four Buddhist Persecutions in China was the wholesale suppression of Buddhism carried out on four occasions from the 5th through the 10th century by four Chinese emperors. The Four Heavenly Ministers, also translated as the Four Sovereigns, are four of the highest sky deities of Taoist religion, and subordinate only to the Three Pure Ones.
The Four Symbols literally meaning "four images" are four mythological creatures in the Chinese constellations. Frank Archibald Sinclair Turk 15 January — 14 February was a noted entomologist and adult educationalist. Frederic Henry Balfour —27 May was a British expatriate editor, essayist, author, and sinologist, living in Shanghai during the Victorian era. The Constitution of Kazakhstan provides for freedom of religion, and the various religious communities worship largely without government interference. Freedom of religion in Taiwan is provided for by the Constitution of the Republic of China, which is in force on Taiwan.
The Constitution of Vietnam officially provides for freedom of worship, while the government has imposed a range of legislation restricting religious practices.
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Fritz Eichenberg October 24, — November 30, was a German-American illustrator and arts educator who worked primarily in wood engraving. Frogs play a variety of roles in culture, appearing in folklore and fairy tales such as the Brothers Grimm story of The Frog Prince. Fu Lu Shou Complex is a shopping centre in the Bugis section of downtown Singapore that specialises in Daoist and Buddhist religious paraphernalia. Fu Zhensong — , also known by his courtesy name Fu Qiankun, was a grandmaster of Wudangquan martial arts.
Fuck is an obscene English-language word, which often refers to the act of sexual intercourse but is also commonly used as an intensifier or to denote disdain. Fujian pronounced , formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. The Fuk Tak Chi Temple is the oldest Chinese temple in Singapore, built in by Hakka and Cantonese immigrants five years after the founding of the modern city in Fuzhou, formerly romanized as Foochow, is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian province, China.
Gao Pian ? Zizhi Tongjian, vol. The gates of hell are various places on the surface of the world that have acquired a legendary reputation for being entrances to the underworld. Gavin Bone born 19 January is an English author and lecturer in the fields of magic, witchcraft, Wicca and Neo-Paganism, and an organizer in the Neo-Pagan community. Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
Genghis Khan is a Chinese television series based on the life of Genghis Khan, the founder of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century. George Yeo Yong-Boon born 13 September is a Singaporean business executive and a former politician. Georges-Albert Puyou de Pouvourville was a French orientalist, mystic, poet, and translator. Gestalt Practice is a contemporary form of personal exploration and integration developed by Dick Price at the Esalen Institute.
In folklore, a ghost sometimes known as an apparition, haunt, phantom, poltergeist, shade, specter or spectre, spirit, spook, and wraith is the soul or spirit of a dead person or animal that can appear to the living. Chinese folklore features a rich variety of ghosts, monsters, and other supernatural creatures. Global intellectual history is the history of thought in the world across the span of human history, from the invention of writing to the present. This glossary of education-related terms is based on how they commonly are used in Wikipedia articles. In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
Gods and demons fiction is a subgenre of fantasy fiction that revolves around the deities, immortals, and monsters of Chinese mythology. The Golden Temple Park, or Jindian Park, is a Taoist bronze-tiled temple in Yunnan, China and has been preserved almost completely since it was first built. In religion, ethics, philosophy, and psychology "good and evil" is a very common dichotomy. The are a group of fictional characters and are the antagonists in the Super Sentai series, Gosei Sentai Dairanger.
Grey British English or gray American English; see spelling differences is an intermediate color between black and white. Growth of religion is the spread of religions and the increase of religious adherents around the world.
Gu Jian Qi Tan "The tale of ancient swords: the story of a guqin and an ancient sword" is a 3D role-playing video game developed by Shanghai Aurogon with the Gamebryo engine and published by Gamebar. Guang Ping Yang Tai Chi Chuan, which has become known as the "lost" Yang-style tai chi chuan form, combines all the positive aspects of Yang Style with qualities that added strength and versatility.
Guangchengzi is a character featured within the classic Chinese novel Fengshen Yanyi. Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong. Guanyin or Guan Yin is an East Asian bodhisattva associated with compassion and venerated by Mahayana Buddhists and followers of Chinese folk religions, also known as the "Goddess of Mercy" in English. Guifeng Zongmi — was a Tang dynasty Buddhist scholar and bhikkhu, installed as fifth patriarch of the Huayan school as well as a patriarch of the Heze school of Southern Chan Buddhism.
Zongmi was deeply affected by both Chan and Huayan. He wrote a number of works on the contemporary situation of Buddhism in Tang China, including critical analyses of Chan and Huayan, as well as numerous scriptural exegeses. Zongmi was deeply interested in both the practical and doctrinal aspects of Buddhism. He was especially concerned about harmonizing the views of those that tended toward exclusivity in either direction. He provided doctrinal classifications of Buddhist teachings, accounting for the apparent disparities in doctrines by categorizing them according to their specific aims.
Guizhou, formerly romanized as Kweichow, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive. Gunung Timur Temple is a Chinese Taoism temple which is the largest in the city of Medan, Indonesia and possibly also on the island of Sumatra.
Guo Xiang died AD is credited with the first and most important revision of the text known as the Zhuangzi which, along with the Tao Te Ching, forms the textual and philosophical basis of the Taoist school of thought. When the guqin is played, the modern name for a plucked seven-string Chinese musical instrument of the zither family, a number of aesthetic elements are involved.
Guyanese people are people identified with the country of Guyana, which is located on the northern coast of South America and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, Brazil, Venezuela and Surinam. Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters".
The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class.
The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu r. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in AD.
The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty c. The coinage issued by the central government mint in BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty — AD. The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty.
Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum.
The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world.
The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion.
Following the death of Emperor Ling r. Han Learning, or the Han school of classical philology, was an intellectual movement that reached its height in the middle of the Qing dynasty — in China. Han purple and Han blue also called Chinese purple and Chinese blue are synthetic barium copper silicate pigments developed in China and used in ancient and imperial China from the Western Zhou period — BC until the end of the Han dynasty circa AD.
Han Yu December was a Chinese writer, poet, and government official of the Tang dynasty who significantly influenced the development of Neo-Confucianism. Handan is a prefecture-level city located in the southwestern part of Hebei province, China. Hanshan fl. Hanzhong lit. Hardline is a deep ecology subculture that has its roots in the vegan straight edge hardcore punk scene.
Harold D. Roth is a professor of religious studies and the Director of the Contemplative Studies Initiative. Hawaii Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, He Yan — 9 February , courtesy name Pingshu, was an official, scholar and philosopher of the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period of China.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from to Heir to the Throne Is A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors. Hell, in many religious and folkloric traditions, is a place of torment and punishment in the afterlife.
Hell money is a form of joss paper printed to resemble legal tender bank notes. Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Henri Paul Gaston Maspero 15 December March was a French sinologist and professor who contributed to a variety of topics relating to East Asia. Naphthali ben Levi Henri van Praag September 12, in Amsterdam - November 3, in Hilversum was a Jewish-Dutch educator, philosopher and theologian or religious historian who also became known as a ortho educational therapist and writer and as a publicist at the psychological and parapsychological field.
A hermit adjectival form: eremitic or hermitic is a person who lives in seclusion from society, usually for religious reasons. High Town is a hilly inner-city district of Luton adjacent to Luton railway station. The high-level equilibrium trap is a concept developed by environmental historian Mark Elvin to explain why China never underwent an indigenous Industrial Revolution, despite its wealth, stability, and high level of scientific achievement. A hippie sometimes spelled hippy is a member of a counterculture, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mids and spread to other countries around the world.
The Historical Atlas of World Mythology is a multi-volume series of books by Joseph Campbell that traces developments in humankind's mythological symbols and stories from pre-history forward. The history of alternative medicine refers to the history of a group of diverse medical practices that were collectively promoted as "alternative medicine" beginning in the s, to the collection of individual histories of members of that group, or to the history of western medical practices that were labeled "irregular practices" by the western medical establishment.
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Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates stateless societies often defined as self-governed voluntary institutions, but that several authors have defined as more specific institutions based on non-hierarchical free associations. The bow and arrow are known to have been invented by the end of the Upper Paleolithic, and for at least 10, years archery was an important military and hunting skill, and features prominently in the mythologies of many cultures.
The history of Asia can be seen as the collective history of several distinct peripheral coastal regions such as, East Asia, South Asia, and the Middle East linked by the interior mass of the Eurasian steppe. The history of Asian art or Eastern art, includes a vast range of influences from various cultures and religions. The city of Beijing has a long and rich history that dates back over 3, years. The history of biology traces the study of the living world from ancient to modern times.
The history of Chinese Americans or the history of ethnic Chinese in the United States relates to the three major waves of Chinese immigration to the United States with the first beginning in the 19th century. The History of East Asia covers the people inhabiting the eastern subregion of the Asian continent known as East Asia from prehistoric times to the present. Evolutionary thought, the conception that species change over time, has roots in antiquity — in the ideas of the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Chinese as well as in medieval Islamic science.
Falun Gong, also called Falun Dafa, is a spiritual practice that combines the practice of meditation with the moral philosophy articulated by its founder, Li Hongzhi. The history of ornamental gardening may be considered as aesthetic expressions of beauty through art and nature, a display of taste or style in civilized life, an expression of an individual's or culture's philosophy, and sometimes as a display of private status or national pride—in private and public landscapes. The social construction of sexual behavior—its taboos, regulation, and social and political impact—has had a profound effect on the various cultures of the world since prehistoric times.
Malaysia is a Southeast Asian country located on a strategic sea-lane that exposes it to global trade and foreign culture. The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present. The practice of meditation is of prehistoric origin, and is found throughout history, especially in religious contexts.
Early writing on mineralogy, especially on gemstones, comes from ancient Babylonia, the ancient Greco-Roman world, ancient and medieval China, and Sanskrit texts from ancient India. The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. Political science as a separate field is a rather late arrival in terms of social sciences. The history of printing goes back to the duplication of images by means of stamps in very early times. The history of qigong, the Chinese practice of aligning breath, movement, and awareness for exercise, healing, and martial arts training, extends back more than 4, years.
The history of religion refers to the written record of human religious experiences and ideas. The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences. Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations, findings and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences, engineering, medicine, military technology, mathematics, geology and astronomy.
The history of science in early cultures refers to the study of protoscience in ancient history, prior to the development of science in the Middle Ages. The history of the Guqin, an ancient Chinese musical instrument, is a long one that spans 3, years. The Han dynasty BCE — CE , founded by the peasant rebel leader Liu Bang known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu ,From the Shang to the Sui dynasties, Chinese rulers were referred to in later records by their posthumous names, while emperors of the Tang to Yuan dynasties were referred to by their temple names, and emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties were referred to by single era names for their rule.
In September , after Mao Zedong's death, the People's Republic of China was left with no central authority figure, either symbolically or administratively. This article is about the history of the Ryukyu Islands southwest of the main islands of Japan.
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The history of the world is the history of humanity or human history , as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.
Tibetan history, as it has been recorded, is particularly focused on the history of Buddhism in Tibet. The Hmong people are an ethnic group currently native to several countries, believed to have come from the Yangtze river basin area in southern China. Ho Ho Ying is a Singaporean abstract artist known for his avant-garde Chinese calligraphy and his Abstract Expressionistic works of art unique to Asian ideology. Hokkien architecture, or called Hoklo architecture or Minnan architecture, refers to the architectural style of the Hoklo people, the Han Chinese group who have historically been the dominant demographic of the Southern Chinese province of Fujian called "Hokkien" in the Hoklo language , Taiwan, and Singapore.
Hoklo Taiwanese are a major ethnic group in Taiwan whose ancestry is wholly or partially Hoklo. The relationship between religion and homosexuality has varied greatly across time and place, within and between different religions and denominations, and regarding different forms of homosexuality and bisexuality. Hong Kong cuisine is mainly influenced by Cantonese cuisine, European cuisines especially British cuisine and non-Cantonese Chinese cuisines especially Hakka, Teochew, Hokkien and Shanghainese , as well as Japanese, Korean and Southeast Asian cuisines, due to Hong Kong's past as a British colony and a long history of being an international port of commerce.
Hong Kong people, also known as Hongkongers and sometimes Hong Kongese, are people who originate from or live in Hong Kong. Hong Meng, Hung Meng, or Hung Mung is a character in the Daoist text Zhuangzi and a metaphor for the "primordial world, primeval chaos" in Chinese creation myths. Hong Zicheng fl. Hongjun Laozu lit. Hongkonger in the Netherlands are people in the Netherlands originated from Hong Kong or having at least once such parent.
Hua Hill Shandong is a solitary cone-shaped hill in the lower Yellow River valley, located at the northeastern edge of the city of Jinan, Shandong Province, China. Hua Tuo — , courtesy name Yuanhua, was a Chinese physician who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty. The Huainanzi is an ancient Chinese text that consists of a collection of essays that resulted from a series of scholarly debates held at the court of Liu An, King of Huainan, sometime before Huang Yan born in Jilin province, China is a multimedia artist, Taoist, and businessman based in Beijing.
Huang Yong Ping born is a French contemporary artist and one of the most famous Chinese Avant-garde artists. Huang—Lao or Huanglao was the most influential Chinese school of thought in the early 2nd-century BCE Han dynasty, having its origins in a broader political-philosophical drive looking for solutions to strengthen the feudal order as depicted in Zhou propaganda. Huangdi Neijing, literally the Inner Canon of the Yellow Emperor or Esoteric Scripture of the Yellow Emperor, is an ancient Chinese medical text that has been treated as the fundamental doctrinal source for Chinese medicine for more than two millennia.
The Huangdi Sijing lit.
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